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About This Web Site


The following books were my primary sources and are recommended for further reading:

African American Films Through 1959 -- Larry Richards 
Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America -- Robert C. Toll
Black Film/White Money -- Jesse Algeron Rhines 
Black Like Me -- John Strausbaugh 
Blacks in Black and White: A Source Book on Black Films -- Henry T. Sampson
Blacks in Blackface: A Source Book on Early Black Musical Shows -- Henry T. Sampson
Bright Boulevards, Bold Dreams, The Story of Black Hollywood -- Donald Bogle 
Channeling Blackness -- Darnell M. Hunt 
Darkest America, Black Minstrelsy from Slavery to Hip-Hop -- Yuval Taylor and Jake Austen
Inside the Minstrel Mask, Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy -- Annemarie Bean 
Introducing Bert Williams -- Camille F. Forbes 
Jim Crow, American: Selected Songs and Plays -- W. T. Lhamon Jr. 
Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class -- Eric Lott
Men in Blackface -- Seymour Stark 
Monarchs of Minstrelsy -- Edward Le Roy Rice 
Nobody, The Story of Bert Williams -- Ann Charters 
Prime Time Blues, African Americans on Network Television -- Donald Bogle 
Raising Cain, Blackface Performance from Jim Crow to Hip Hop -- W. T. Lhamon Jr. 
The Ghost Walks: A chronological history of blacks in show business, 1865-1910 -- Henry T. Sampson
The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow -- Richard Wormser 
Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies & Bucks -- Donald Bogle 
Where Dead Voices Gather -- Nick Tosches

About the Author

Ken Padgett is a historian, freelance writer, and webmaster who lives in San Diego, California.


Padgett, Kenneth. Blackface! - The History of Racist Blackface Stereotypes. Web. 31 March 2023. <>.


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Blackface! -- Contents

Bert Williams

History of Blackface

Blacks in Blackface

History of Minstrel Shows

Minstrel Show Female Impersonators

Stephen Foster

Origins of Jump Jim Crow

Blackface Origins in Clowning

Blackface History Prior to Minstrel Shows

Excerpts from Monarchs of Minstrelsy (1911)

Famous Blackface Minstrel Performers

Blackface Around the World

About This Web Site

Visit the Blackface! YouTube Channel for more blackface and minstrel show videos

Racial and Racist Stereotypes in Media

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Black Stereotypes
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Asian Stereotypes
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Hispanic Stereotypes
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Indian Stereotypes
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Arab Stereotypes
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Jewish Stereotypes

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Ken Padgett